D. TMP Template 2 Moderate-to-Major Impacts
Table of Contents
This section provides an overview of the project, which generally includes:
- Work zone limits (if possible, include a map showing the limits of the work).
- Project background information.
- Specific traffic restrictions expected on major roadways during the work (e.g., shoulder closures, lane closures, lane shifts).
- Specific roadways that will be directly affected by the project work zones.
- Regional projects that may impact each other.
- Project schedule.
- Some TMPs may not have all the information at the early stages of the project. Information can be added as the project progresses.
- When multiple sections of an agency or different agencies, consultants, or contractors are involved, this would be a good place to include their contact information to help with coordination across agencies/projects.
Defining roles and responsibilities from the initial stages of a project helps to coordinate all the activities related to TMP development, implementation, and monitoring. This section includes contact information and roles and responsibilities for major personnel involved in the project, such as:
- TMP Development Managers—Agency/Contractor personnel with the primary responsibility for developing the TMP.
- TMP Implementation Managers—Agency/Contractor personnel primarily responsible for implementing the TMP.
- TMP Implementation Task Leaders—Agency personnel/Contractor personnel who manage, complete, oversee, or assist in specific transportation management tasks (examples include TTC inspection/supervision, PI Officer, etc.) during the work.
- Public Information Officer—Agency personnel who provide real-time public awareness of the work zone, including detection, prevention, and response to incidents.
- Emergency Contacts—Public or semi-public agencies (e.g., hospitals, schools) that need to be kept informed about work zone activities, especially in case of a road closures.
The following tables can be used to list contact information and roles and responsibilities of major personnel involved in the project. The tables can be modified to meet agency needs.
|Department of Transportation (DOT)||Consultant|
|Roles and Responsibilities:|
|Roles and Responsibilities:|
|Roles and Responsibilities:|
|Roles and Responsibilities:|
|Fire and Emergency Medical Services (FEMS)||Police Department (PD)|
|Roles and Responsibilities:|
As challenges vary greatly from one project to another, a preliminary assessment of work zone impacts developed in the early planning stages of the project will help identify issues or uncover problem areas that should be considered during project development. Agency guidelines apply on determining the impact levels and how extensive the preliminary assessment should be. Some agencies use decision-support tools, while others have developed checklists/flowcharts to assist in the decision-making process. For projects where major impacts are readily apparent, agencies may choose to conduct a detailed analysis directly (skip to Section 4.0), rather than go through a preliminary assessment.
Some of the potential questions that could help in a preliminary assessment of work zone impacts include:
Does the project includes a long-term closure and/or extended weekend closure?
If Yes, what is/are the applicable type of facility(ies)?
- Principal Arterial
- Minor Arterial
Can traffic be detoured?
- Is the local alternate detour route in good condition?
- Will the detour route have a detrimental impact on emergency vehicles, school buses, or other sensitive traffic?
- Are there load limit restrictions on the detour?
- Are there bridge/culvert height or width restrictions on the detour?
Is the existing shoulder sufficient to support traffic during construction?
Is additional width required on culverts or bridges to maintain traffic?
Is there a pedestrian/bicycle facility that must be maintained?
Would a temporary structure(s) be required?
Would a median crossover be needed?
Would there be a need to maintain railroad traffic?
Could maintenance of traffic have an impact on existing or proposed utilities?
Does it appear that maintenance of traffic will require additional right-of-way?
Can the contractor restrict the roadway during the time periods listed?
- a.m. peak hours, one direction
- p.m. peak hours, one direction
- a.m. peak hours, both directions
- p.m. peak hours, both directions
- Local celebrations
- Holidays or weekends
- Sporting events/other special events
Will project timing (for example, start or end date) be affected by special events:
- School closings or openings?
- Sporting events?
Are there any projects to be considered along the corridor or in the region?
- Roadwork in the immediate area that may affect traffic or the contractor’s operations?
- Roadwork on other roads that may affect the use of alternate routes?
Are there other maintenance of traffic issues? If so, specify.
Some projects (e.g., on low volume rural roads) may need only a simple screening tool such as a checklist, while others (e.g., in congested urban areas) may need quantitative analysis (level of service analysis, signal timing, etc) to determine the impact levels. Quantitative analysis may indicate the need for some additional analysis and/or strategies to assess and manage the impacts, or it may indicate that impacts are relatively low and few strategies are required beyond the temporary traffic control (TTC) plan.
NOTE: If the project is expected to create moderate-to-major impacts, continue with this template. For lower impacts projects, use Template 1.
This section provides an overview of the existing conditions within the study area. The existing conditions generally include:
- Roadway characteristics (history, roadway classification, number of lanes, geometrics, urban/suburban/rural).
- Historical traffic data (volumes, speed, capacity, volume/capacity, percent trucks, queue length, peak traffic hours).
- Traffic operations (signal timing, traffic controls).
- Crash data.
- Pedestrian/bicycle facilities.
- Transit facilities.
- Truck routes.
- Local community and business concerns/issues.
- Comments/concerns regarding traffic operations, delays, access/egress, etc., that have been received from community, business representatives, and stakeholders during the planning and design stages of the project development.
- Specific concerns on pedestrian, bicycle, transit facilities, etc. This will help in assessing the impacts and assist in developing appropriate strategies to alleviate the identified issues and concerns.
The sample table below summarizes pertinent project information. Agencies can modify the table to meet their needs.
|Roadway/Street Name||Classification||ADT||Capacity||Peak Hour Volume||Existing LOS||Proposed LOS|
This section is intended to provide information on safety and mobility aspects within the project influence area, including traffic safety, data collection and modeling approach, traffic analysis, and other issues and concerns. This operational analysis will help identify potential work zone impacts and guide selection of TMP strategies.
A safety analysis will help identify the potential locations for monitoring and/or other strategy deployments during construction to help manage work zone safety. Ongoing monitoring of the potential locations for any increase in crashes is important while the TTC, TOP, and PI&O are implemented.
The table, below can be used to summarize crash data (at least for the previous three years) by intersection or control section. The table can be modified depending on agency needs/standards. Crash data may include:
- Number of crashes by location.
- Percentage of crashes by type or contributory factors.
- Crashes per million vehicles, etc.
|Total||Injuries||Fatalities||Work Zone||Type of Crashes|
5.2.1. Data Collection and Traffic Modeling
- Model adjacent roadways impacted by the construction in the overall analysis, as traffic can detour from a congested construction route.
- The FHWA Traffic Analysis Tools program provides information on traffic analysis tools. (http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/trafficanalysistools/index.htm)
Based on the type and complexity of the analysis to be conducted, data collection/gathering may include:
- Traffic counts (vehicles, bicycles, pedestrians, trucks).
- Speed survey (counts, posted and 85th percentile speeds, etc).
- Intersection control.
- Land use.
Measures of effectiveness (MOEs) are usually determined for the primary/critical roadway segments. The type of analysis greatly depends on agency policies and practices, and complexity of the project.
MOEs can include:
- Queue Lengths
- Travel Time
- V/C Ratio
- Congestion/User cost
The use of traffic analysis tools depends on the roadway classification (corridor/freeway/freeway surface street interchange) and level of complexity of the project. Specific tools available for use in modeling include the following:
- Quick Zone
- DYNASMART- P
- Lane Closure Analysis Program (LCAP)/Charts
A single tool may be used in modeling, or for some projects a combination of tools may be helpful.
Many States have developed/modified various spreadsheet programs and other tools, such as web-based work zone safety analysis, lane closure analysis programs, lane closure requirement charts or maps, etc., to assist in work zone impact analysis.
5.2.2. Alternatives/Impact Assessment
A work zone impact assessment is the process of understanding the safety and mobility impacts of a road construction, rehabilitation, or maintenance projects. The analysis compares and documents various work zone options and associated maintenance of traffic constraints, including staging/phasing options as well as temporary traffic control options, for each project and work zone design alternative. Performing an alternatives analysis during the preliminary stages of the project helps in selecting the best option going forward.
An alternative assessment may involve a high-level qualitative analysis or a detailed quantitative analysis using various models, as described in section 5.2.1. It involves a comparison between existing and future traffic operations for different alternatives. These comparisons should be evaluated in conjunction with agency thresholds to determine whether the impacts are acceptable or not. For unacceptable impacts, agencies should follow their safety and mobility policy guidelines for reducing the impacts.
If the MOT alternative analysis is prepared during the design process, and is referenced in the TMP, consider including it as an appendix for easy reference and access.
To assess the impacts, traffic analysis is usually conducted for existing conditions and proposed work zone alternatives, and the results compared. Traffic analysis helps to:
- Provide a baseline to compare with future work zone alternatives.
- Identify the extent of possible traffic backups, which can then be used to determine potential detour routes or where traffic may naturally reroute itself, or locations that may need additional monitoring.
The sample table template below provides an easy comparison of MOEs for different alternatives. Agencies can modify the table to meet their needs.
It is recommended to include a short narrative on the reason for the selected alternative.
|MOEs||Existing||Alternative 1||Alternative 2||***Alternative 3|
|*** Indicates Selected Alternative|
This section can also include a brief review of the impact assessment of the selected construction alternative in different areas such as:
- Community Accessibility—Impact on access/egress of the community and businesses around the work zones (if any).
- Pedestrians and Bicyclists—Safety and accessibility of pedestrians with respect to sidewalk/crosswalk closures, ADA compliance, feasibility, safety of pedestrian detours, temporary crosswalks, etc.
- Public Transportation—Work zone impact on the existing bus routes and bus stops. If any alternate bus stops are provided, are the routes to, as well as the bus stops ADA compliant?
- Commercial Vehicles—Measures considered to reduce/detour the commercial vehicles (in case of significant impact operating in and around the work zones).
- Utilities—Major utility projects could impact the roadway traffic. It is important to identify the utility projects scheduled to take place during the construction period and consider them while developing the TMP.
This section provides an overview of various strategies deployed to improve the safety and mobility of work zones and reduce the work zone impacts on the road users, community, and businesses.
The strategies are grouped according to the following three categories.
- Temporary Traffic Control (TTC)
- Transportation Operations (TO)
- Public Information and Outreach (PI&O).
In addition to traditional TTC strategies, TO and PI mitigation measures must be used for significant projects. Some examples of TO and PI strategies include:
- Motorist assist patrols.
- Enhanced sign and pavement markings.
- Increased police enforcement.
- Real-time traffic information and updates on project delays.
TMP Details—For traditional design-bid-build project, many agencies have details of the proposed work zone strategies in TTC plans (e.g., PCMS message content) and list of strategies in the TMP document. In such cases it is useful to include the TTC Plan as an attachment to the TMP. In case of design-build projects, work zone strategies based on preliminary TTC concept plans would be included in the TMP document.
TMP Costs—Agency guidelines apply on whether cost should be listed in the TMP document. When the TMP is a contract document, the cost items are typically not listed. However, estimating the work zone management strategy implementation costs and including these within the overall project budget is crucial, as it may be difficult to obtain additional funding at a later time for needed strategies. This potentially avoids under-allocation of funds. Where feasible, it is helpful to itemize the cost estimates for the various management strategies and document them in the TMP, with cost responsibilities, opportunities for sharing or coordinating with other projects, and funding sources specified. TMP components can be funded as part of the construction contract and/or in separate agreements.
Contingency/Incident Management Plans—Consider developing a contingency plan that addresses specific actions that will be taken to restore or minimize impacts on traffic when the congestion or delay exceeds original estimates due to unforeseen events. This includes work-zone crashes, traffic volumes higher than predicted traffic demand, delayed pick-up of lane closures, etc.
It is best to develop the Contingency/Incident Management plan as a collaborative effort with the emergency response and the public safety community. Development of such a plan is crucial in the early phases to properly integrate the concerns of the first responder personnel. It is recommended that agencies consider key components, such as the following six items, in developing the plan: (1) Incident Detection and Verification; (2) Incident Classification and Response; (3) Site Management; (4) Site Clearance; (5) Motorist Information; (6) Evaluation.
The sample tables below provide a summary of various work zone management strategies. The tables can be modified by agencies to suit their needs.
|Temporary Traffic Control||Cost|
|1. Construction phasing/staging|
|2. Full roadway closures|
|3. Lane shifts or closures|
|4. One-lane, two-way controlled operation|
|5. Two-way, one-lane traffic/reversible lanes|
|6. Ramp closures/relocation|
|7. Freeway-to-freeway interchange closures|
|8. Night work|
|9. Weekend work|
|10. Work hour restrictions for peak travel|
|11. Pedestrian/bicycle access improvements|
|12. Business access improvements|
|13. Off-site detours/use of alternate routes|
|Traffic Control Devices|
|14. Temporary signs|
|15. Arrow boards|
|16. Channelizing devices|
|17. Temporary pavement markings|
|18. Flaggers and uniformed traffic control officers|
|19. Temporary traffic signals|
|20. Lighting devices|
|Project Coordination Strategies|
|21. Other area projects|
|24. Other transportation infrastructure|
|Innovative Contracting Strategies|
|26. A+B Bidding|
|27. Incentive/Disincentive clauses|
|28. Lane rental|
|29. Performance specifications|
|Innovative or Accelerated Construction Techniques|
|30. Prefabricated/precast elements|
|31. Rapid cure materials|
|Demand Management Strategies|
|1. Transit service improvements|
|2. Transit incentives|
|3. Shuttle services|
|4. Parking supply management|
|5. Variable work hours|
|7. Ridesharing/carpooling incentives|
|8. Park-and-Ride promotion|
|Corridor/Network Management Strategies|
|9. Signal timing/coordination improvements|
|10. Temporary traffic signals|
|11. Street/intersection improvements|
|12. Bus turnouts|
|13. Turn restrictions|
|14. Parking restrictions|
|15. Truck/heavy vehicle restrictions|
|16. Reversible lanes|
|17. Dynamic lane closure system|
|18. Ramp closures|
|19. Railroad crossing controls|
|20. Coordination with adjacent construction site(s)|
|Work Zone ITS Strategies|
|21. Late lane merge|
|22. PCMS with speed display|
|23. Travel time estimation system|
|24. Advanced speed information system|
|25. Advanced congestion warning system|
|26. Conflict warning system (e.g., construction vehicles entering roadway)|
|27. Travel time monitor system|
|28. Freeway queue monitor system|
|29. CCTV monitoring|
|30. Real-time detour|
|Work Zone Safety Management Strategies|
|31. Speed limit reduction/variable speed limits|
|32. Temporary traffic signals|
|33. Temporary traffic barrier|
|34. Movable traffic barrier systems|
|35. Crash cushions|
|36. Temporary rumble strips|
|37. Intrusion alarms|
|38. Warning lights|
|39. Automated flagger assistance devices (AFADs)|
|40. Project task force/committee|
|41. Construction safety supervisors/inspectors|
|42. Road safety audits|
|43. TMP monitor/inspection team|
|Incident Management and Enforcement Strategies|
|44. ITS for traffic monitoring/management|
|46. Surveillance (e.g., CCTV)|
|47. Helicopter for aerial surveillance|
|48. Traffic Screens|
|49. Call boxes|
|50. Mile-post markers|
|51. Tow/freeway service patrol|
|52. Total station units|
|54. Media coordination|
|55. Local detour routes|
|56. Contract support for Incident Management|
|57. Incident/Emergency management coordination|
|58. Incident/Emergency response plan|
|59. Dedicated (paid) police enforcement|
|60. Cooperative police enforcement|
|61. Automated enforcement|
|62. Increased penalties for work zone violations|
|63. Emergency pull-offs|
|Public Information and Outreach||Cost|
|Public Awareness Strategies|
|2. Press kits|
|3. Brochures and mailers|
|4. Press releases/media alerts|
|5. Mass media (earned and/or paid)|
|6. Paid advertisements|
|7. Project Information Center|
|8. Telephone hotline|
|9. Planned lane closure website|
|10. Project website|
|11. Public meetings/hearings, workshops|
|12. Community task forces|
|13. Coordination with media/schools/business/emergency services|
|14. Work zone education and safety campaigns|
|15. Work zone safety highway signs|
|16. Rideshare promotions|
|17. Visual information|
|Motorist Information Strategies|
|18. Radio traffic news|
|19. Changeable message signs|
|20. Temporary motorist information signs|
|21. Dynamic speed message sign|
|22. Highway Advisory Radio (HAR)|
|23. Extinguishable Signs|
|24. Highway information network (web-based)|
|25. Traveler information systems(wireless, handheld)|
|26. Transportation Management Center (TMC)|
|27. Live traffic camera(s) on a website|
|28. Project information hotline|
|29. Email alerts|
Any additional notes on selected strategies, the TMP in general, or any item requiring special attention for the project can be provided in this section.
The TMP needs to be implemented in the field, as specified, unless any changes have been approved by the agency. To help ensure appropriate implementation, 23 CFR 630 Subpart J §630.1012(e) requires that the State/Agency and the contractor each designate a trained person at the project level who has the primary responsibility and sufficient authority for implementing the TMP and other safety and mobility aspects of the project.
Monitoring the performance of the TMP during the construction phase is important to establish whether the predicted impacts closely resemble the actual conditions in the field, and whether the TMP strategies are effective in managing the impacts. TMP monitoring is needed for both oversight and evaluation purposes, such as:
- Monitoring and documenting TMP changes during construction.
- Preparing an evaluation of the TMP, including lessons learned.
- Refining work zone impact analysis processes and models based on outcomes.
TMP monitoring includes details of any specific observational, logging, and/or recording activities conducted during the project for work zone performance measurement purposes. Examples of possible performance measures for TMP monitoring include:
- Queue length
- Travel time
- Number of crashes/incidents
- Incident response and clearance times
- Type and frequency of legitimate complaints received.
Agencies use different methods to monitor and assess performance, such as portable sensors or floating car methods to measure queues and travel times, and video cameras with detection capabilities for real time measurements.
It is helpful for the TMP Implementation/Monitoring Managers to meet with the Project Manager on a regular basis to discuss and assess the safety and mobility impacts of the project work zone to date. This helps to assess how well the TMP is managing the project impacts, and can help identify and address issues before they become problems. It also provides the opportunity to verify that all key stakeholders and project officials have been receiving timely notifications where required.
TMPs, and changes to TMPs, must be approved by the DOT before they are implemented. As part of this process, many agencies conduct a TMP review, either by a designated individual or a team. A TMP review is particularly important for higher impact projects, and will help with future revisions of the TMP and performance monitoring. The TMP approval is then based on the TMP review.
Peer Review—Some agencies have found it helpful to use a TMP peer review process for significant projects that involves a team not directly involved with the project (e.g., staff from DOT central office and other regions/districts). The TMP may go through peer review at various stages of the project, at which the TMP is assessed and comments are provided, including how to proceed.
It is ideal to have a specific person, such as the "Chief Engineer and/or a designate, approve the final TMP design document before implementation. It is recommended that major updates also be approved by Chief Engineer or designate.
Following are some State/agency practices relating to TMP review and approval:
- Michigan—has a statewide Safety and Mobility Peer Review Team for projects exceeding thresholds set in the Michigan Work Zone Safety and Mobility Manual.
- Oregon—each region has it own TMP reviews.
- Montana—TMP approval is conducted as part of the PS&E checklist
- California—has a signature line for the TMP Manager on the project "ready to list" form so that the TMP is signed off right before the project is put to bid.
- Maryland—District/relevant central office managers and the Public information Officer sign off on the TMP.
- Rhode Island—requires that the Chief Engineer, State Traffic Engineer, and Traffic Management Chief sign off on the TMP as part of the PS&E review and process.
- Wisconsin—has signoffs on the TMP worksheet checklist in the regions.
A sample TMP Approval Template is given below which can be modified by agencies according to their practice/needs.
|Chief Engineer||Project Engineer|
|All approvals must be obtained prior to start of work|
|Revision #||Initials||Date||Revision #||Initials||Date|
Appendices may include:
- Traffic Counts
- Traffic Analysis (Existing compared with future)
- Temporary Traffic Control Plans
- Public Information and Outreach Plan
- TMP Review Notes
- Project Monitoring Form or Post-Project Evaluation Form.