Tolling and Pricing Program
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Tolling and Pricing Opportunities

The following resources will provide further information relating to the Tolling and Pricing Program.

Congestion Pricing Primer Series

The Congestion Pricing Primer Series is part of FHWA's outreach efforts to introduce the various aspects of congestion pricing to decision-makers and transportation professionals in the United States. The primers are intended to lay out the underlying rationale for congestion pricing and some of the technical issues associated with its implementation in a manner that is accessible to non-specialists in the field. The following Primers are now available:

  • Congestion Pricing Overview (HTML, PDF 664KB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-08-039) - This Overview primer was produced to explain the concept of congestion pricing and its benefits, to present examples of congestion-pricing approaches implemented in the United States and abroad, and to briefly discuss federal-aid policy and programs related to tolling and pricing.
  • Economics: Pricing, Demand, and Economic Efficiency - A Primer (HTML, PDF 3.5MB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-08-041) - This primer describes the underlying economic rationale for congestion pricing and how it can be used to promote economic efficiency.
  • Income-Based Equity Impacts of Congestion Pricing (HTML, PDF 1.4MB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-08-040) - This primer was produced to examine the impacts of congestion pricing on low-income groups, public opinion as expressed by various income groups, and ways to mitigate the equity impacts of congestion pricing.
  • Non-Toll Pricing (HTML, PDF 458KB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-08-044) - This primer focuses on forms of congestion pricing that do not involve tolls but that are still aimed at creating more efficient pricing mechanisms for automobile use.
  • Technologies That Complement Congestion Pricing (HTML, PDF 492KB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-08-043) - The purpose of this volume is to consider the technology options that are available to complement congestion-pricing approaches. This primer explores how technology broadens the success for congestion pricing by supporting the traveler's decision to change travel time, travel mode, and travel route. Complementary technologies (a) extend the benefits of congestion-pricing strategies to those directly and indirectly affected, (b) improve public acceptance of congestion-pricing strategies, and (c) improve the value of existing travel options available to individuals.
  • Technologies That Enable Congestion Pricing (HTML, PDF 1.6MB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-08-042) - This volume explores transportation technologies that enable congestion pricing.
  • Transit and Congestion Pricing (HTML, PDF 4.5MB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-09-015) - This primer was produced to examine the interrelationships between congestion pricing and transit operations and use.

Related Reports and Publications

  • A Compendium of Existing HOV Lane Facilities in the United States (HTML, PDF 2.1MB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-09-030) - The compendium provides an assembly of available information on existing HOV lane facilities in the United States. While it is comprehensive and thought to include virtually all existing facilities at this time, it is possible that there are isolated instances of facility information that had been omitted from sources used for this document. The compendium is intended as a reference resource for an audience of transportation professionals responsible for planning, designing, funding, operating, enforcing, monitoring, and managing HOV and HOT lanes, and other stakeholders in policy decisions for improving HOV lane and highway mainline operations through conversion to HOT lanes.
  • A Domestic Scan of Congestion Pricing and Managed Lanes (HTML, PDF 535KB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HEP-09-044) - The purpose of this project was to conduct a scan of selected Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) and State Departments of Transportation (State DOTs) to determine how they are planning for congestion pricing and managed lanes.
  • A Review of HOV Lane Performance and Policy Options in the United States - Final Report (HTML, PDF 2.4MB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-09-029) - The report provides an assessment of performance of existing HOV lane facilities in the United States, and explores policy alternatives and effects related to conversion of existing HOV lanes to HOT lane operations. The report includes sketch planning tools for exploring policy alternatives, and is intended for an audience of transportation professionals responsible for planning, designing, funding, operating, enforcing, monitoring, and managing HOV and HOT lanes, and other stakeholders in policy decisions for improving HOV lane and highway mainline operations through conversion to HOT lanes.
  • Advancing Congestion Pricing in the Metropolitan Transportation Planning Process: Four Case Studies (HTML, PDF 449KB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-11-002) - This study examined how road pricing was incorporated into long-range planning at four metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs) to provide examples that could support other regions seeking to do the same. The study summarized the experience in the Dallas/Fort Worth region, the Puget Sound region, the Minneapolis/St. Paul region, and the San Francisco Bay area, and identified common themes and differences amongst the approaches used and the outcomes.
  • Article: Congestion Pricing With Lane Reconfigurations To Add Highway Capacity - FHWA is exploring innovative ideas for combining congestion pricing and active traffic management to expand highway capacity. (FHWA's Public Roads Article March/April 2009 Edition)
  • Bay Area Regional HOT Network Study - The Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) has released an updated report for the Bay Area Regional HOT Network Study (December 2008). This report summarizes technical analysis up through Summer 2008, including the assumptions and analysis underlying the HOT Network included in the Transportation 2035 Plan. This report is now available on MTC's web page at Printed copies will be available in early January. At that time, you may request a printed copy from the MTC-ABAG library at
  • Congestion Pricing and NEPA: Environmental Benefits and Considerations - The article focuses on incorporating Pricing into the NEPA process. Featured in the the "November 2008 Success in Stewardship" newsletter.
  • National Congestion Pricing Conference (HTML, PDF 279KB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-14-005)
  • Congestion Pricing: A Primer on Institutional Issues (HTML, PDF 717KB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-13-034) - Institutional issues provide challenges to implementing congestion pricing strategies. The primer explores the types of institutional issues that are commonly encountered with priced lanes, zone-based pricing, and parking pricing programs.
  • Effective Approaches for Advancing Congestion Pricing in a Metropolitan Region (HTML, PDF 1.7MB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-12-030) - This primer is intended to raise awareness among staff at MPOs and their partner agencies about the potential role of congestion pricing in supporting regional goals as well as the most effective approaches for advancing congestion pricing strategies in a region.
  • Evaluation of Toll Options Using Quick-Response Analysis Tools
  • Examining the Speed-Flow-Delay Paradox in the Washington, DC Region: Potential Impacts of Reduced Traffic on Congestion Delay and Potential for Reductions in Discretionary Travel during Peak Periods: Final Report (HTML, PDF 1.2MB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-09-017) - The Federal Highway Administration commissioned this study to specifically evaluate speed, volume and delay for congested versus uncongested travel on some of the major roadways in the metropolitan Washington region, in order to identify the specific "tipping point(s)" at which free-flow traffic "breaks down", and conversely, the volume of traffic that would have to be reduced in peak periods to keep traffic free-flowing. The study also analyzed survey data to estimate the number and percent of trips that people take in peak hours on our freeways that are discretionary trips. Finally, the study briefly reviewed empirical findings on experiences with congestion pricing in the US and abroad.
  • Exploring a New Congestion Pricing Concept: Focus Group Findings from Northern Virginia and Philadelphia (HTML, PDF 382KB)
  • Final Proceedings of "Getting Started with Congestion Pricing: A Workshop for Local Partners" - In 2010, a one-day workshop was developed to provide local agencies with a means to come together and learn more about the process of planning and implementing a congestion pricing facility. Two regional workshops were conducted in Hartford, Connecticut, and in Charlotte, North Carolina. This paper provides a broad review of the congestion pricing introductory workshop for local agencies. The purpose of this review is to provide feedback to the FHWA regarding the effectiveness of the workshop in accomplishing the objectives outlined by the sponsor and in gathering information on the needs of the local agencies that are considering a future transportation system with lane pricing.
  • Guidebook for State, Regional, and Local Governments on Addressing Potential Equity Impacts of Road Pricing (HTML, PDF 626KB) - (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-13-033) This guidebook is designed to assist transportation agencies to better assess and mitigate perceived and potential equity impacts of road pricing projects on local communities, commuters, and system users.
  • High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lanes Marketing Toolkit
  • Florida Department of Transportation District Six 95 Express Midyear Report (PDF 2.4MB) - Project Status for Urban Partnership Agreement (October 30, 2009)
  • International Symposium on Road Pricing (HTML, PDF 582KB) - Conference Proceedings 34, November 2003, from the Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies
  • Lessons Learned From International Experience in Congestion Pricing (HTML, PDF 1.4MB) - Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-08-047
  • Policy Options Evaluation Tool for Managed Lanes (POET-ML) Users Guide and Methodology Description (HTML, PDF 1.7MB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-09-031) - Intended for an audience of transportation professionals responsible for planning, designing, funding, operating, enforcing, monitoring, and managing HOV and HOT lanes, and considering conversion of HOV to HOT lanes.
  • Priced Managed Lane Guide (HTML, PDF 3.5MB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-13-007) - The Guide is intended to be a comprehensive source of collective experience gained from priced managed lanes implemented in the United States through 2012. The Guide presents a wide range of information on priced managed lanes. The purpose of this guide is to assist transportation professionals as they consider, plan, and implement priced managed lanes projects. The Priced Managed Lane Guide also updates the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) 2003 Guide for HOT Lane Development.
  • Report to Congress on the Express Lanes Demonstration Program
    • Fiscal Year 2012 (HTML, PDF 615KB)
    • Fiscal Year 2011 (HTML, PDF 1.7MB)
    • Fiscal Year 2010 (HTML, PDF 5.4MB)
  • Report to Congress on the Value Pricing Pilot Program
    • Through April 2006 (HTML, PDF 700KB)
    • Through May 2009 (HTML, PDF 688KB)
    • Through April 2010 (HTML, PDF MB)
    • Through April 2012 (HTML, PDF 1.5MB)
  • Roadway Network Productivity Assessment: System-Wide Analysis Under Variant Travel Demand (HTML, PDF 412KB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-09-019) - The analysis documented in this report examines the hypothesis that the system-wide productivity of a metropolitan freeway system in peak periods is higher in moderate travel demand conditions than in excessive travel demand conditions.
  • State of the Practice and Recommendations on Traffic Control Strategies at Toll Plazas - This report has been prepared under a project initiative by the Federal Highway Administration to identify the 'state-of-the-practice' for traffic control strategies at toll plazas, and to develop recommended guidelines for agencies and departments that operate or plan to design and build such facilities.
  • Strategies for Improving Safety at Toll Collection Facilities (HTML, PDF - 801KB) - This report is the result of an effort to gather information on specific safety strategies directly from those who operate and who work in and around toll facilities.
  • Synthesis of Congestion Pricing-Related Environmental Impact Analyses (HTML, PDF 309KB) (Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-11-008) - This report summarizes the state-of-the-practice and presents a recommended framework for before-after evaluations of the environmental impacts of congestion pricing projects, such as high-occupancy toll (HOT) lanes and cordon or area pricing schemes.
  • The Urban Partnership Agreement: A Comparative Study of Technology and Collaboration in Transportation Policy Implementation (PDF 398KB)
  • Toll Facilities in the United States - Bridges-Roads-Tunnels-Ferries (July 2011)
  • Tolling Options Tool Helps Manage Traffic - Research and Technology Transporter, January 2003 Issue)
  • Urban Partnership Agreement and Congestion Reduction Demonstration Programs Publications
  • Value Pricing Pilot Program: Lessons Learned (HTML, PDF 1.6MB) - Publication Number: FHWA-HOP-08-023


Value Pricing Pilot (VPP) Program

Other Resources

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