Freight Performance Measure Approaches for Bottlenecks, Arterials, and Linking Volumes to Congestion Report
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Contact Information: Freight Feedback at FreightFeedback@dot.gov
U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
Office of Operations
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
Publication #: FHWA-HOP-15-033
Table of Contents
1.1 Purpose of This Guide
1.2 Guide Organization
1.3 Summary of Past Work
2.0 Matching Traffic Volumes to Congestion Data
2.1 Data Sources
2.2 Segmentation of Roadway into Reporting Segments
2.3 Quality Control
2.4 Data Processing Procedures to Match Travel-Time (Speed) and Volume Data Sources
3.0 Measuring Signalized Arterial Congestion
3.2 Data Sources for Monitoring Signalized Arterial Performance
3.3 Recommended Procedure for Measuring Signalized Arterial Congestion
4.0 Analysis of Freight Bottlenecks
4.2 Bottleneck Typology
4.3 Data Required for Freight Bottleneck Analysis
4.4 Bottleneck Performance Measures
4.5 Initial Screening of Potential Truck Freight Bottlenecks: Geometric- and Volume-Related Bottlenecks
4.6 Conduct Project-Level Analysis for Selected Bottlenecks: Geometric- and Volume-Related Bottlenecks
4.7 Conduct Project-Level Analysis for Selected Bottlenecks: Policy-Related Bottlenecks
4.8 Estimating the Impacts of Improving Truck Bottlenecks
4.9 Multi-Modal Considerations
4.10 Supply Chain Considerations
4.11 Community Considerations
4.12 Existing Plans and Programs
List of Figures
Figure 1. Map. Houston TranStar® traffic map.
Figure 2. Graph. “Car speed minus truck speed” difference cumulative percentage distribution, Interstates.
Figure 3. Graph. “Car speed minus truck speed” difference cumulative percentage distribution, other freeway and expressway.
Figure 4. Graph. “Car speed minus truck speed” difference cumulative percentage distribution, principal and minor arterials.
Figure 5. Graph. Weekday mixed-traffic distribution profile for no to low congestion.
Figure 6. Graph. Weekday freeway truck-traffic distribution profiles.
Figure 7. Flow chart. Program logic model adapted for arterial performance management.
Figure 8. Map. Interstate spot speeds.
Figure 9. Graph. Distribution of sample Interstate spot speeds.
Figure 10. Map. Spot speeds along an urban signalized arterial.
Figure 11. Graph. Distribution of sample urban signalized arterial spot speeds.
Figure 12. Map. Average spot speed measurements.
Figure 13. Map. Travel time measurements along an urban arterial.
Figure 14. Equation. TravelTime subscript Segment.
Figure 15. Equation. RefTravelTime subscript Segment.
Figure 16. Equation. UnitDelay subscript Segment.
Figure 17. Equation. MTTI subscript Segment.
Figure 18. Equation. PTI subscript Segment.
Figure 19. Equation. P80TTI subscript Segment.
Figure 20. Equation. UnitDelay subscript Segment.
Figure 21. Equation. VMT subscript Segment.
Figure 22. Equation. VHT subscript Segment.
Figure 23. Equation. TotalDelay subscript Segment.
Figure 24. Equation. MTTI subscript (Facility).
Figure 25. Equation. PTI subscript Facility.
Figure 26. Equation. P80TTI subscript Facility.
Figure 27. Equation. TotalDelay subscript Facility.
Figure 28. Graph. Example cumulative frequency distribution for travel times.
Figure 29. Flow chart. Overview of freight bottleneck analysis methodology.
Figure 30. Table. Common locations for geometric-related bottlenecks on freeways.
Figure 31. Map. Bottleneck at intersection or interchange.
Figure 32. Equation. Annual passenger vehicle delay cost.
Figure 33. Equation. Annual commercial cost.
Figure 34. Equation. TTI subscript e(VT).
Figure 35. Equation. Annual commercial cost.
Figure 36. Map. Atlanta truck speeds, AM peak.
Figure 37. Map. Atlanta truck speeds, PM peak.
Figure 38. Graph. Vehicle speeds on primary arterials, Davidson and Knox Counties, Tennessee.
Figure 39. Map. I-285/I-85 interchange, Atlanta, Georgia.
Figure 40. Figure. The instantaneous and virtual probe methods of estimating travel times from spot speeds.
List of Tables
Table 1. United States traffic message channel—Roadway coverage in National Highway System and National Performance Management Research Data Set.
Table 2. Completeness Percentages for the National Performance Management Research Data Set for mixed traffic and trucks.
Table 3. Mixed speed and truck speed percentage validation results by functional classification.
Table 4. Speed and volume spatial and temporal data availability considerations.
Table 5. Day-of-week volume conversion factors.
Table 6. Comparison of arterial travel-time data collection technologies.
Table 7. Reference speeds from National Performance Management Research Data Set.
Table 8. Test of reference speeds, Atlanta, Georgia freeways.
Table 9. Segment-level performance measures, U.S. 70 PM peak.
Table 10. Partial list of potential truck bottleneck locations for Tennessee from National Performance Management Research Data Set scan.
Table 11. Annual average daily traffic-to-capacity levels and corresponding annual average daily traffic values.
Table 12. Performance measures for the inbound legs of the I-85/I-285 interchange, Atlanta, Georgia, 2014.
Table 13. Reliability prediction methods developed by the Strategic Highway Research Program 2 program.
List of Abbreviations and Symbols
AADT—Annual Average Daily Traffic
AASHTO—American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
AOG—Arrival on Green
ARC—Atlanta Regional Commission
ATRI—American Transportation Research Institute
AVC—Automatic Vehicle Classification
AVI—Automatic Vehicle Identification
BTI—Buffer Time Index
DMI—Distance Measuring Instrument
DOT—Department of Transportation
EDRG—Economic Development Research Group
ELPR—Electronic License Plate Reader
FCAT—Freight Chokepoint Analysis Tool
FHWA—Federal Highway Administration
FMCSA—Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
GDOT—Georgia Department of Transportation
GIS—Geographic Information System
GPS—Global Positioning System
HCM—Highway Capacity Manual
HOS—Hours of Service
HPMS—Highway Performance Monitoring System
HSM—Highway Safety Manual
ITE—Institute of Transportation Engineers
ITS—Intelligent Transportation Systems
LRTP—Long-Range Transportation Plan
MAC—Media Access Control
MAP-21—Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act
MMUT—Mobility Measurement in Urban Transportation
MOE—Measures of Effectiveness
MPO—Metropolitan Planning Organization
MTTI—Mean Travel-Time Index
NCHRP—National Cooperative Highway Research Program
NHS—National Highway System
NPMRDS—National Performance Management Research Data Set
pcphpl—passenger cars per hour per lane
POG—Percent Arrivals on Green
RHiNo—Roadway-Highway Inventory Network
SCAG—Southern California Association of Governments
SESRC—Social and Economic Sciences Research Center
SHRP 2—Strategic Highway Research Program 2
TMAS—Travel Monitoring Analysis System
TMC—Traffic Message Channel
TOPS-BC—Tool for Operations Benefit Cost Analysis
TTI—Texas A&M Transportation Institute
TWG—Technical Working Group
TxDOT—Texas Department of Transportation
VCTIR—Virginia Center for Transportation Innovation and Research
VHT—Vehicle-Hours of Travel
VMT—Vehicle-Miles of Travel
VOR—Value of Reliability
VOT—Value of Typical Time
VTRIS—Vehicle Travel Information System