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21st Century Operations Using 21st Century Technologies

Transportation Systems Management and Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Compendium

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Contact Information: Freight Feedbackat FreightFeedback@dot.gov

United States Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration

Publication #: FHWA-HOP-14-032

September 2015


Table of Contents

[ Notice and Quality Assurance Statement ] [ Technical Report Documentation Page ] [ Foreword ] [ List of Acronyms ]

1. INTRODUCTION
Project Background and Purpose
The Transportation Systems Management and Operations Compendium
The Operations Benefit/Cost Analysis Desk Reference
Management and Operations Strategies
CHAPTER 2. FUNDAMENTALS OF BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS
Economic Fundamentals
Benefit-Cost Analysis
CHAPTER 3. USE OF DISCOUNTING, PRESENT VALUE, CONSTANT AND CURRENT DOLLARS IN BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS
Benefits
Costs
The Monetization of Benefits and Costs
CHAPTER 4. INTRODUCTION TO BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS TOOLS
TOPS-BC – A Tool for Benefit-Cost Analysis of TSMO Strategies
How to Use the Compendium
Overall Lessons Learned from Case Studies
CHAPTER 5. ARTERIAL OPERATIONS
Case Study 5.1 – Hypothetical Preset Arterial Signal Coordination
Case Study 5.2 – Adaptive Traffic Signal Control in Greeley and Woodland Park, Colorado
Case Study 5.3 – Adaptive Traffic Signal Control
Case Study 5.4 – Hypothetical Roundabouts
Case Study 5.5 – Effectiveness of Roundabouts in Maryland
Case Study 5.6 – Effectiveness of Arterial Management in Florida
CHAPTER 6. FREEWAY SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT
Case Study 6.1 – Hypothetical Centrally Controlled Ramp Metering Deployment
Case Study 6.2 – Florida DOT Road Ranger Program
Case Study 6.3 – Metropolitan Area Transportation Operations Coordination Program
Case Study 6.4 – Regional Traffic Management Center, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida
Case Study 6.5 – Coordinated Highways Action Response Team, Maryland
Case Study 6.6 – Georgia NaviGator Traffic Incident Management System
CHAPTER 7. DEMAND MANAGEMENT
Case Study 7.1 – Minnesota I-35W Urban Partnership
Case Study 7.2 – Interstate I-95 Express Managed Lanes
CHAPTER 8. TRANSIT OPERATIONS
Case Study 8.1 – Transit Signal Priority, Portland Tri-Met
Case Study 8.2 – Transit Signal Priority, Los Angeles DOT/ MTA
CHAPTER 9. TRAVELER INFORMATION
Case Study 9.1 – Oregon's Automated Wind Warning System
Case Study 9.2 – Hypothetical Truck Tip-Over Warning System
Case Study 9.3 – Freight: Truck Over-Height Warning System
CHAPTER 10. OTHER STRATEGIES
Case Study 10.1 – Road Weather Pooled Fund Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) Implementation
Case Study 10.2 – Hypothetical Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) Implementation
CHAPTER 11. BCA STUDIES USING MULTIPLE STRATEGIES
Case Study 11.1 – Automated License Plate Recognition
Case Study 11.2 – Cincinnati Region Advanced Regional Traffic Interactive Management & Information System (ARTIMIS) Study
Case Study 11.3 – Washington's Automated Anti-Icing System Study
CHAPTER 12. REFERENCES
CHAPTER 13. BIBLIOGRAPHY



List of Figures

Figure 1 Graph. Time Series of Costs and Benefits.
Figure 2 Equation. Formula for Discounting.
Figure 3 Equation. Present Value.
Figure 4 Equation. Overall Present Value.
Figure 5 Screenshot. Partial the Tabular Display of Benefit Cost Analysis Results from the Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis.
Figure 6 Chart. Clear Roads Tabular Display of Benefit-Cost Analysis Results.
Figure 7 Screenshot. Kansas City SCOUT Graph. ic Display of Benefit Cost Analysis Results.
Figure 8 Screenshot. Southwest Pennsylvania Regional Traffic Signal Program Graph. ic Display of Benefit-Cost Analysis Results.
Figure 9 Diagram. Multidimensional Display from the Metropolitan Transportation Commission.
Figure 10 Screenshot. Portion of the Benefit Estimation Parameters Page from the Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis
Figure 11 Screenshot. Excel Formula Bar Outlined in Red.
Figure 12 Screenshot. Signal Timing Brief for Alameda Avenue.
Figure 13 Equation. The Value of Travel Time.
Figure 14 Equation. Fuel Consumption.
Figure 15 Graph. Reduction in Collisions for Roundabouts.
Figure 16 Screenshot. A Run for Roundabout Benefits Using the Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis.
Figure 17 Diagram. Key Roundabout Characteristics.
Figure 18 Graph. Before and After Total and Injury Accident Rates.
Figure 19 Equation. Dollars Spent to Reduce One Accident.
Figure 20 Equation. Equivalent Uniform Annual Cost.
Figure 21 Equation. Benefit-Cost Ratio.
Figure 22 Screenshot. Palm Beach Living Lab Coverage.
Figure 23 Screenshot. Palm Beach Living Lab Device Locations.
Figure 24 Screenshot. Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Traffic Signal Coordination Systems Costs Page.
Figure 25 Screenshot. Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Traffic Signal Coordination Systems Benefits Page (part 1).
Figure 26 Screenshot. Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Traffic Signal Coordination Systems Benefits Page (part 2).
Figure 27 Equation. Individual Incident Savings.
Figure 28 Equation. Cost Savings for All Incidents.
Figure 29 Equation. Number of Secondary Crashes in the Baselline Condition.
Figure 30 Equation. Estimated Decrease In Secondary Crashes.
Figure 31 Equation. Cost Savings from the Reduction in Secondary Crashes.
Figure 32 Equation. Salvage Value.
Figure 33 Equation. Salvage Value Calculated Using Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement Data.
Figure 34 Equation. Total Vehicle Hours of Travel Time Savings.
Figure 35 Screenshot. Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Advanced Transportation Demand Management High Occupancy Toll Lanes Costs Page (part 1).
Figure 36 Screenshot. Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Advanced Transportation Demand Management High Occupancy Toll Lanes Costs Page (part 2).
Figure 37 Screenshot. Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Advanced Transportation Demand Management High Occupancy Toll Lanes Benefits Page (part 1).
Figure 38 Screenshot. Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Advanced Transportation Demand Management High Occupancy Toll Lanes Benefits Page (part 2).
Figure 39 Screenshot. Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Lifecycle Signal Priority Cost Page.
Figure 40 Screenshot. Partial View of the Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Benefit Estimation Page.
Figure 41 Screenshot. Partial View of the Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Transit Priority Benefit-Cost Summary Page.
Figure 42 Screenshot. Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis of Transit Signal Priority Costs.
Figure 43 Screenshot. Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Annual and Net  Present Value of Cost.
Figure 44 Screenshot. Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Benefit-Cost  Summary.
Figure 45 Screenshot. Partial View of the Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Blank Cost Template Worksheet.
Figure 46 Screenshot. Partial View of a Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis New Truck Tip-Over Cost Worksheet.
Figure 47 Screenshot. Creating a New Hyperlink in the Master Navigation Menu.
Figure 48 Photo. A Truck that Collided with the MD 75 Bridge.
Figure 49 Photo. Truck Over-Height Warning System.
Figure 50 Graph. Benefit-Cost Methodology and Relationship between Level of Service and Costs.
Figure 51 Screenshot. Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Navigation Column for Estimating Costs – Road Weather Management Strategies.
Figure 52 Screenshot. Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Start Page – Estimate Life-Cycle Costs Function.
Figure 53 Screenshot. Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis Cost Table Edited for Maintenance Decision Support System Cost Inputs.
Figure 54 Screenshot. Bottom of Road Weather Management Benefit Spreadsheet.
Figure 55 Screenshot. TOPS-BC Navigation Column for Estimating Benefits – My Deployments.
Figure 56 Diagram. Advanced Regional Traffic Interactive Management and Information System Program Expansion Plans.
Figure 57 Screenshot. Washington State DOT Benefit-Cost Worksheet for Collision Reduction.

List of Tables

Table 1 Benefit and Cost Categories and Elements.
Table 2 New Jersey Department of Transportation Comparison of Savings for the Assumed Reduction in Duration of Each Incident.
Table 3 Summary of Existing Benefit-Cost Analysis Tools and Methods for Transportation Systems Management and Operations Projects.
Table 4 Crash Rates per Million Vehicle Miles Traveled.
Table 5 Volume to Capacity Ratio-Sensitive Crash Rates per Million Vehicle Miles Traveled.
Table 6 Default Impact Assumptions Currently in the Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis.
Table 7 Case Study List.
Table 8 Denver Regional Council of Governments 0 Annual Benefits Summary of Projects.
Table 9 Input Variables & User Supplied Cost Data for Preset Traffic Signal Coordination.
Table 10 Benefit Cost Summary.
Table 11 Travel Time Study Results: Measure of Effectiveness Benefit (Percentage Change).
Table 12 Cost to Implement the Adaptive Signal Control Systems.
Table 13 Benefit and Cost Categories.
Table 14 Benefits of Implementing the Adaptive Signal Control Systems.
Table 15 Summary of the Results of the Benefit-Cost Analysis.
Table 16 Benefit and Cost Categories for Adaptive Traffic Signal Control.
Table 17 Summary of the Results of the Benefit-Cost Analysis for Adaptive Traffic Signal Control.
Table 18 Benefit Summary.
Table 19 Calculation of Cost per Accident Avoided by Roundabout Program in Maryland.
Table 20 Benefit-Cost Ratio for Roundabout Program in Maryland.
Table 21 Okeechobee Boulevard Volume Counts.
Table 22 Benefits and Costs for the Palm Beach Living Laboratory Case Study.
Table 23 Input Variables and User-Supplied Data for Ramp Metering Example.
Table 24 Benefit-Cost Analysis Summary for a Hypothetical Centrally Controlled Ramp Metering Deployment.
Table 25 Benefit-Cost Summary (Statewide) for the Florida DOT Road Ranger Program.
Table 26 Minor Incident Costs With and Without Metropolitan Area Transportation Operations Coordination Program Involvement.
Table 27 Major Incident Costs With and Without Metropolitan Area Transportation Operations Coordination Program Involvement.
Table 28 Benefit-Cost Summary for the Metropolitan Area Transportation Operations Coordination Program.
Table 29 Benefit-Cost Summary for the Regional Traffic Management Center in Ft. Lauderdale.
Table 30 Benefit-Cost Summary for the Coordinated Highways Action Response Team.
Table 31 Benefit Categories for Traffic Incident Management.
Table 32 Benefit-Cost Summary for the Georgia NaviGator Traffic Incident Management System.
Table 33 Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement Projects Included in the Benefit-Cost Analysis.
Table 34 Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement Project Costs included in the Benefit-Cost Analysis.
Table 35 Travel Time Savings on I-35W South (minutes).
Table 36 Travel Time Savings for Transit Riders from the MARQ2 Lanes.
Table 37 Unit Costs for Police-Reported Injury Scale (KABCO) (2008 $).
Table 38 Department of Public Safety Crash Data for I-35W South.
Table 39 Gasoline Prices.
Table 40 Volume of Reduced Emissions.
Table 41 Values of Reduced Emissions (in 007 $).
Table 42 Benefit-Cost Summary for the Minnesota I-35W Urban Partnership Agreement.
Table 43 Minnesota Urban Partnership Agreement Benefit-Cost Analysis Results.
Table 44 Benefits and Costs for the I-95 Express Lanes Case Study.
Table 45 Goals, Objectives, and Measures of Effectiveness.
Table 46 Labor and Equipment Cost Savings for Automated Wind Warning Systems.
Table 47 Average Delay Costs per Road Closure (South Coast System).
Table 48 Benefit Cost Calculations for Automated Wind Warning Systems.
Table 49 Equipment List of Major Components.
Table 50 Benefit and Cost Categories Expected from Maintenance Decision Support System Deployment.
Table 51 Benefit-Cost Summary for the South Dakota Study.
Table 52 Benefit-Cost Summary from the Tool for Operations Benefit-Cost Analysis "My Deployments" Sheet.
Table 53 Benefit-Cost Analysis of Automated License Plate Recognition System Investment.
Table 54 Comparison of Advanced Regional Traffic Interactive Management and Information System Operational Projects with a Traditional Roadway Widening Project.
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