Office of Operations
21st Century Operations Using 21st Century Technologies

Integrating Demand Management into the Transportation Planning Process:
A Desk Reference

Contact Information: Wayne Berman at

Front cover:  View of highway from passenger car with multi-lane traffic ahead. Overhead view of commercial truck driving down a freeway. Line of bicyclists driving into a city. Freight railcars at a switching yard. City skyline with public transit rail station and train in foreground. City skyline with public transit bus on a street.

August 2012
Publication Number FHWA-HOP-12-035

PDF Version 22MB

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This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof.

The U.S. Government is not endorsing any manufacturers, products, or services cited herein and any trade name that may appear in the work has been included only because it is essential to the contents of the work.

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1. Report No
2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle
5. Report Date
August 31, 2012
6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)
Deepak Gopalakrishna (Battelle), Eric Schreffler (ESTC), Don Vary (Wilbur Smith Associates), David Friedenfeld (Wilbur Smith Associates), Beverly Kuhn (Texas Transportation Institute), Casey Dusza (Texas Transportation Institute), Rachel Klein (Battelle), Alexandra Rosas (Battelle)
8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address
Battelle, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, Ohio
ESTC, San Diego CA
Wilbur Smith, Fairfax, VA
Texas Transportation Institute, Austin, TX
10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)
11. Contract or Grant No.
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, S.E.
Washington, DC 20590
13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Technical Report 2009-2012
14. Sponsoring Agency Code
15. Supplementary Notes
Project performed under contract to Battelle for the Federal Highway Administration Office of Operations COTR- Barry Zimmer
16. Abstract
The document has been developed to serve as a desk reference on integrating demand management into the transportation planning process. The desk reference is organized around two fundamental aspects of transportation planning – policy objectives and scope of the planning effort. The report discusses how demand management relates to seven key policy objectives that are often included in transportation plans, such as congestion and air quality. It then discusses how demand management might be integrated into four levels of transportation planning from the state down to the local level. The report also includes information on tools available for evaluating demand management measures and on the known effectiveness of these measures.
17. Key Word
Demand Management, Planning Process
18. Distribution Statement
No restrictions.
19. Security Classif. (of this report)
20. Security Classif. (of this page)
21. No. of Pages
22. Price

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72)




List of Tables

List of Figures


This report describes approaches for integrating demand management into the planning process at various levels for addressing different policy objectives. The report also documents known effectiveness, modeling, and evaluation approaches for demand management strategies to enable transportation professionals to effectively include demand management into their planning and operational "tool box." The authors would like to acknowledge the role and contributions of the many reviewers of this desk reference, who have enthusiastically supported this effort with their time, effort, and ideas for improving the document. We also gratefully acknowledge the direction and guidance provided by the DOT steering team for this project including Robin Smith, Reginald Arkell, Jim Hunt, Ralph Volpe, Rick Backlund, Patrick DeCorla-Souza, David Luskin, and Jeff Spencer. The report benefitted from review workshops held in Chicago, Richmond, Salt Lake City, Dallas, and Orlando.

The authors are grateful to all those who attended and provided comments and follow-up materials. Specifically, we would also like to thanks Phil Winters and Sisinnio Concas from the Center for Urban Transportation Research, University of South Florida, for their technical review of relevant portions of the document.

Finally, Egan Smith and Wayne Berman have provided their ongoing support for this project with a clear guiding vision of demand management and its role in the planning process.

U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
Office of Operations (HOP) 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590

Phone 202-366-6726
Fax 202-366-3225

Office of Operations Web Site

August 2012

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