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U.S. Department of Transportation

3.0 Menu of Operations Objectives (Part 2)


[ Return to Part 1 of Chapter 3. ]


3.3 Fact Sheets

This section contains fact sheets for the following categories (defined in Section 3.1):

  1. System Efficiency
  2. System Reliability
  3. System Options
  4. Arterial Management
  5. Emergency/Incident Management
  6. Freeway Management
  7. Freight Management
  8. Special Event Management
  9. Transit Operations and Management
  10. Travel Demand Management
  11. Travel Weather Management
  12. Traveler Information
  13. Work Zone Management

Each fact sheet contains the following information:

Safety Background Information

Three sources were researched to identify statistically sound, agreed-upon safety impact information. The three sources referenced for this desk reference were:

The related safety impacts cited in this document are select examples, and do not constitute a comprehensive overview and listing. Example M&O strategies within the three sources were only selected for those actions which produced a sound trend or a specific crash modification factor. Crash modification factors and associated error estimates are sited when available in the safety-related impacts section of the fact sheets. A crash modification factor (CMF) is a multiplicative factor used to compute the expected number of crashes after implementing a given treatment (countermeasure) at a specific site. For example, an intersection is experiencing 100 angle crashes per year. If an agency applies a countermeasure that has a crash modification factor of 0.80 for angle crashes, then the agency can expect to see 80 angle crashes per year following the implementation of the countermeasure (100 x 0.80 = 80). Most crash modification factors are stated with standard errors. The standard error can be used to estimate the confidence interval of the crash modification factor. To estimate the range of the potential change in crash frequency with a 95th percentile confidence interval, multiply the standard error by two and add and subtract this value to/from the crash modification factor. So if a crash modification factor of 0.80 has a standard error of 0.1, the range of the crash modification factor is 0.60 (0.80 – 2x0.10) to 1.0 (0.80 + 2x0.10). This means that an agency can be 95% confident that the treatment will result in up to a 40 percent reduction in crashes.11



3.3.1 System Efficiency

System Efficiency: Extent of Congestion

General Description

The intent of these objectives is to manage the proportion of the transportation system that experiences recurring congestion (the spatial extent of congestion). Common expressions of recurring congestion are volume-to-capacity (V/C) ratio and level of service (LOS), which is measured in terms of travel speed or delay.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies designed to reduce recurring congestion, such as traffic signal coordination and travel demand strategies that encourage shifts in travel mode, time, or route.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of M&O strategies associated with recurring congestion and their safety impacts include:

Note: The existing number of crashes is multiplied by the crash modification factor to determine the expected number of crashes following implementation of a treatment.



System Efficiency: Duration of Congestion

General Description

These objectives focus on managing the duration of recurring congestion (roadway or intersection) on the transportation system. The duration of recurring congestion represents the length of time that a facility is congested. Common expressions of recurring congestion are volume-to-capacity (V/C) ratio and level of service (LOS), which is measured in terms of travel speed or delay.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies designed to reduce recurring congestion, such as traffic signal coordination; travel demand strategies that encourage shifts in travel mode, time, or route; and congestion pricing strategies that encourage shifts to off-peak periods.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



System Efficiency: Intensity of Congestion (Travel Time Index)

General Description

This objective focuses on managing the intensity of traffic congestion experienced by the traveling public. Congestion is measured using a travel time index, which compares travel conditions in the peak period to travel conditions during free-flow or posted speed limit conditions. For instance, a travel time index of 1.30 indicates that travel typically takes 30 percent longer in the peak period than during the off-peak period. The objectives focus on the actual experience of travelers and can be multimodal if transit travel time is included in the measure.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies designed to reduce recurring peak period congestion, such as traffic signal coordination; and travel demand strategies that encourage shifts in travel mode, time, or route. If the objective includes transit, strategies could include transit signal priority.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



System Efficiency: Travel Time

General Description

These objectives focus on reducing travel time experienced by travelers. Travel time is a measure of the average time spent in travel, reflecting both travel speeds and distances. Total travel time is calculated as the sum of individual segment time multiplied by the number of people experiencing that time. The objectives can be multimodal if they account for transit travel time.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies designed to reduce recurring peak period congestion, such as traffic signal coordination, and travel demand strategies that encourage shifts in travel mode, time, or route. If the objective includes transit, strategies could include transit signal priority.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:

Note: The existing number of crashes is multiplied by the crash modification factor to determine the expected number of crashes following implementation of a treatment.



System Efficiency: Delay

General Description

These objectives focus on reducing the delay in travel experienced by travelers. Delay is a measure of "excess travel time" caused by congestion (i.e., in comparison to free flow time or relative to the posted speed limit). Traffic delay per capita measures are more mode neutral than traffic delay per driver or per vehicle measures (i.e., focuses on the experiences of the entire population, not just drivers).

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies designed to reduce recurring peak-period congestion, such as traffic signal coordination, and travel demand strategies that encourage shifts in travel mode, time, or route. If the objective includes transit, strategies could include transit signal priority.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



System Efficiency: Energy Consumption

General Description

These objectives focus on reducing total energy consumed for purposes of transportation. Energy consumption reflects both the amount of travel and fuel efficiency. "Excess" energy consumption specifically focuses on the excess fuel consumed due to congestion (i.e., in comparison to free-flow conditions). Objectives that address total energy consumption may more effectively account for energy savings of increasing bicycling, walking, and transit, compared to measures that focus solely on excess fuel consumption associated with traffic congestion.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies designed to reduce congestion and single occupancy vehicle trips, such as traffic signal coordination and incident management; travel demand strategies that encourage shifts in travel mode, time, or route; and congestion pricing strategies that encourage shifts to offpeak periods.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



System Efficiency: Cost of Congestion

General Description

These objectives focus on reducing the annual monetary cost of congestion, which can be measured based on wasted time and fuel, increased vehicle operating costs, increased accidents, and costs of pollution.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies designed to reduce peak period congestion as well as unexpected delay, such as traffic signal coordination and traffic incident management; and travel demand strategies that encourage shifts in travel mode, time, or route. If the objective includes transit, strategies could include transit signal priority.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



System Efficiency: Vehicle Miles Travel

General Description

The intent of this objective is to reduce the amount of vehicle miles traveled (VMT) by users of the transportation system. Comparisons of performance are best facilitated by associating the VMT with the population that generates them (per capita).

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies that focus on managing travel demand through trip elimination (e.g., telecommuting), trip chaining (e.g., combining trips to reduce trip lengths), mode shifts (e.g., shifts from driving alone to transit, bicycling, and walking), increasing vehicle occupancy, as well as land-use strategies. Transit strategies that make transit trips faster and more reliable likely will also encourage shifts from driving to transit.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



System Efficiency: Trip Connectivity

General Description

The intent of these objectives is to improve the efficiency of intra- and intermodal connectivity on trips taken by the traveling public in terms of providing an alternative to the single occupancy vehicle trip. Optimization of trip connectivity is indicated by cost and travel time.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies include those designed to improve trip connectivity focus on the end-user: the traveling public. Transfers of trips should be minimized and fare payments should be seamless.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



3.3.2 System Reliability



System Reliability: Non-Recurring Delay

General Description

This set of objectives aims at decreasing non-recurring delay—travel time delay caused by transient events as opposed to delay caused by geometric limitations or a lack of capacity. These objectives focus on non-recurring delay due to scheduled disruptions and unscheduled disruptions to travel.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

Travel time data during transient events may be difficult to collect, particularly during unscheduled events such as incidents and severe weather. Public safety organizations are likely needed to assist in identifying the locations and times of traffic incidents. Road and track maintenance staff will be needed to identify upcoming work. Data on travel times during unscheduled events may need to be extracted after collection from ongoing travel time data based on the time and location of events. The National Weather Service may also need to be involved in identifying times and locations of severe weather that may have impacted travel.

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies to reduce non-recurring delay include those that focus on reducing the delay caused by incidents, work zones, special events, and other transient events that affect traffic flow.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



System Reliability: Travel Time Buffer Index

General Description

Objectives in the area of travel time reliability aim to reduce the variability in travel time so that transportation system users experience a consistent and predictable trip time. Unexpected delay is reduced for people and goods. This sheet focuses on the buffer time index, which reflects the amount of extra time that travelers need to add to their average travel time to account for non-recurring delay.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures13

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies for increasing travel time reliability are those activities that aim to improve nonrecurring delay such as traffic incident management, work zone management, or special events management.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



System Reliability: Planning Time Index

General Description

Objectives in the area of travel time reliability aim to reduce the variability in travel time so that transportation system users experience a consistent and predictable trip time. Unexpected delay is reduced for people and goods. This sheet focuses on the planning time index. This reflects the amount of extra time that travelers need to add to free-flow (or posted speed limit) travel time in order to arrive on-time in almost all situations. The planning time index takes into account both recurring and non-recurring sources of delay.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Those that aim to reduce both recurring and non-recurring delay: HOV/HOT lanes, ramp metering, single occupancy vehicles, transit, traffic incident management, work zone management, special events management.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



System Reliability: Travel Time 90th/95th Percentile

General Description

These objectives focus on reducing the 90th or 95th percentile travel time for one or more routes or trips in the region. The 90th or 95th percentile travel time represents one of the worst travel times for that route or trip because it indicates that 90 – 95 percent of travel times for that route are shorter than the 90th or 95th percentile travel time.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Travel times that are in the top 5 to 10 percent of duration for a given route are likely caused by significant, non-recurring events such as major traffic incidents, system maintenance failures, severe weather, and work zones that significantly reduce available capacity. Strategies to consider would be those that work to prevent the more extreme events or reduce the impact to travelers through traveler information.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



System Reliability: Variability

General Description

Objectives in this section focus on improving travel time reliability by trying to reduce the variability of travel time.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies for reducing variance in travel time include those activities that aim to reduce delay caused by transient events such as incidents, work zones, special events, etc.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



System Reliability: Transit On-Time Performance

General Description

These objectives focus on travel time reliability for transit users as measured by on-time performance. There is often a tolerance interval for on-time performance such that if a transit vehicle arrives at a stop within X minutes of scheduled arrival and does not depart from that stop more than Y minutes after scheduled departure time, it is considered on-time.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Improvements to transit on-time performance may be achieved through reducing recurring and non-recurring delay on transit routes by implementing transit signal preemption, designated lanes for transit, and electronic fare collection.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



3.3.3 System Options



System Options: Mode Share

General Description

These objectives seek to increase the share of modes used other than the single occupancy vehicle to improve the overall efficiency of the transportation system.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to encourage the use of other modes include travel demand management strategies, parking management, and congestion pricing strategies.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



System Options: Transit Use

General Description

The primary intent of these objectives is to increase the use of transit for trips taken or transit mode share so as to reduce single occupancy vehicle use and improve overall system efficiency; they may also address the efficiency of transit services in terms of the number of occupied seats per bus or train.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to increase the use of transit over single occupancy vehicle travel include marketing, rider incentive programs, electronic fare card systems, increased transit travel time efficiency and reliability, and ease of use.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



System Options: Travel Time – Transit Compared to Auto

General Description

These objectives focus on improving the travel time (or speed) of public transit in comparison to average auto travel times (or speeds). The objective is designed to advance efficient transit operations and make transit more competitive with the auto to persuade system users to use transit as opposed to single occupancy vehicles.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies designed to increase transit speeds, such as bus rapid transit, HOV lanes that buses can use, queue jump lanes at signalized intersections, and transit signal priority.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:

Note: The existing number of crashes is multiplied by the crash modification factor to determine the number of crashes following implementation of a treatment.



System Options: Bicycle and Pedestrian Accessibility and Efficiency

General Description

The objectives in this section focus on improving the accessibility and efficiency of bicycle and pedestrian modes to offer travelers feasible and attractive travel options.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Pedestrian countdown signals, bicycle lanes, signage, crossing signals where bicycles cross major roadways.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies, and their safety impacts include:



System Options: Modal Options for Individuals with Disabilities

General Description

The objectives in this sheet focus on increasing modal options for individuals with disabilities.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Planning, programming, and constructing ADA improvements at intersections. Expanding paratransit service and purchasing transit vehicles with low-floor boarding capabilities and other accommodations for individuals with disabilities.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



3.3.4 Arterial Management



Arterial Management: Delay

General Description

These objectives seek to address delay experienced on arterials. Arterial roads primarily serve through traffic and provide access to abutting properties as a secondary function.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies designed to address the management of traffic on arterial roads typically include a blend of outreach, guidance, training, and research to advance four major types of strategies: traffic signal improvements, advanced traffic signal control, traffic monitoring, and access management.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:

Note: The existing number of crashes is multiplied by the crash modification factor to determine the number of crashes following implementation of a treatment.



Arterial Management: Access Management

General Description

These objectives seek to address access management issues experienced on arterials to improve the flow of traffic, reduce crashes, and reduce congestion.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies designed to address access management on arterials can be outlined in an access management plan and include access spacing, driveway spacing, dedicated left- and right-turn lanes, roundabouts, two-way left-turn lanes, and non-traversable, raised medians.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



Arterial Management: Reliability

General Description

These objectives aim to reduce the variability in travel time on arterials so that users experience a more consistent and predictable trip time.

Operations Objectives

[See section on System Reliability for additional information on buffer index, planning index, and other measures.]

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies include traffic incident management, work zone management, special events management, and traveler information.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:

Note: The existing number of crashes is multiplied by the crash modification factor to determine the number of crashes following implementation of a treatment.



Arterial Management: Traffic Monitoring and Data Collection

General Description

These objectives focus on developing or improving traffic monitoring and data collection on arterials that is necessary for managing arterials through signalization or traveler information.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Arterial Management: Traffic Signal Management

General Description

These objectives improve the management of traffic signal systems through advanced technology, increased reviews, and planning.

Operations Objectives18

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies directly follow from the objectives.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



3.3.5 Emergency/Incident Management



Emergency/Incident Management: Incident Duration

General Description

This set of objectives focuses on reducing the duration of incidents on the transportation system. Three different categories are covered: Discovery and verification time, notification and response time, and clearance time. Verification includes determining the incident location and gathering sufficient information to enable an appropriate response.19

Operations Objectives

Discovery and Verification Time

Notification and Response Time

Time to Clear Incident and Resume Traffic Flow

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to consider in improving detection and verification of incidents include enhancing inter-agency voice and data communications systems, expanding the use of roving patrols, and CCTV cameras.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



Emergency/Incident Management: Person Hours of Delay

General Description

The intent is to reduce person hours of delay due to traffic incidents.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Regions can reduce travel time delay due to incidents by shortening incident clearance time and providing travelers with information to avoid the incident area.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



Emergency/Incident Management: Evacuation Times

General Description

This objective provides a focus on the safety and efficiency of emergency evacuation via surface transportation. The objective emphasizes per capita time to evacuate and allows for evaluation of large and small events involving large and small geographic areas and/or numbers of people.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies for improving evacuation time in an emergency situation include interagency coordination and communication, responder training, and traffic engineering strategies (e.g., contraflow lanes).

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



Emergency/Incident Management: Customer Satisfaction

General Description

The intent is to improve customer satisfaction with incident management in the region.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to consider for improving customer satisfaction with TIM include extensive traveler information during incidents and reducing the duration of the incident.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Emergency/Incident Management: Traveler Information

General Description

This section contains objectives that focus on providing travelers with accurate, timely, and actionable information about incidents and emergencies.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to consider include training on disseminating traveler information on incidents as well as deploying and managing VMS and websites.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



Emergency/Incident Management: Inter-Agency Coordination

General Description

This section contains objectives that focus on increasing coordination and communication between agencies with responsibilities for traffic incident management.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

The M&O strategies to consider are inherent in these objectives.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Emergency/Incident Management: Training

General Description

This section contains objectives that focus on training incident management staff.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to consider would include making the NIMS training widely available to all relevant staff in the region.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Emergency/Incident Management: Use of Technology

General Description

This section contains objectives that focus on deploying technology needed to support traffic incident management.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

The M&O strategies to consider are inherent in the objectives.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



3.3.6 Freeway Management



Freeway Management: Efficiency

Operations Objectives

[See section on Efficiency-related objectives for others that apply to freeways]

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies include managed lanes, ramp management, use of shoulder lanes during peak periods, traveler information, and other strategies to improve freeway throughput and manage demand and traffic flow.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies, and their safety impacts include:



Freeway Management: Reliability

General Description

These objectives aim to reduce the variability in travel time on the freeway system so that users experience a more consistent and predictable trip time.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies include managed lanes, incident management, work zone management, special events management, and traveler information.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



Freeway Management: Managed Lanes

General Description

The objectives in this category focus on increasing the availability of or improving the operation of managed lanes. Managed lanes are intended to keep traffic flowing through techniques such as time-of-day restrictions, vehicle type restrictions (e.g., high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes and truck-only toll ways), and/or pricing (charging motorists for access, e.g., high occupancy toll (HOT) lanes).

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies designed to offer time savings to various classes of road users could include truck only lanes, high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes, and high occupancy toll (HOT lanes), and could be established as contraflow or reversible lanes.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



Freeway Management: HOV Lanes

General Description

The objectives in this category focus on increasing the availability of or improving the operation of high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes. HOV lanes are intended to provide a faster and more reliable travel time for carpools, vanpools, and buses, thereby encouraging higher levels of ridesharing and transit use.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to consider include identification of under-performing HOV lanes, consideration of peak-hour operation only, HOV bypass lanes at ramp meters, and access to park-and-ride facilities that provide a location for individuals to transfer from single occupant vehicles to a high-occupancy mode of travel.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Freeway Management: Pricing and Tolling

General Description

The objectives in this section focus on use of pricing to manage demand, such as by charging a premium to users who want to drive during peak periods.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to consider include dynamic/congestion pricing, electronic toll collection, and automated enforcement.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Freeway Management: Ramp Management

General Description

The objectives in this section focus on the application of control devices, such as traffic signals, signing, and gates, to regulate the number of vehicles entering or leaving the freeway in order to achieve operational objectives.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Ramp management strategies typically encompass ramp metering, ramp closure, special use treatments (e.g., HOV, special events, etc.), and ramp terminal treatments.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Freeway Management: Transportation Management Centers

General Description

The objectives in this section focus on monitoring the operation of the freeway system and initiating control strategies that effect changes in the operation of the network.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies include managing the operation of the transportation system by communicating travel condition information, making necessary modifications to traffic and transit control systems, and directing response activities.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



3.3.7 Freight Management



Freight Management: Customer Satisfaction

General Description

The intent of this objective is to improve freight shippers', receivers', and carriers' satisfaction with freight mobility in the region.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to consider for improving customer satisfaction with freight management include infrastructure and technology improvements. Additional strategies include providing rest areas and services for long-haul truckers.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Freight Management: Travel Time Delay

General Description

The objectives in this section focus on reducing travel-time delay for regional freight transportation

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Regions can reduce travel time delay for freight by increasing traveler information across the region, weigh-in-motion weigh stations, travel demand management programs, and freight only lanes.

Safety-related Impacts

Select example of associated M&O strategies, and its safety impacts include:



Freight Management: Travel Time Reliability

General Description

Objectives in the area of travel-time reliability for freight aim to reduce the variability in travel time so that users experience a consistent and predictable trip time for the movement of goods on the surface transportation system.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures21

Buffer index on regional freight routes during peak and off-peak period.

The buffer index represents the extra time (buffer) freight travelers add to their average travel time when planning trips. This is the extra time between the average travel time and near worst case travel time (95th percentile), whereas the planning time index represents the extra time between the free-flow travel time and the near-worst case travel time (95th percentile). The buffer index is stated as a percentage of the average travel time.

Equation. Buffer index expressed in percent is equal to the sum of the average travel time in minutes subtracted from the 95th percentile travel time in minutes divided by the  average travel time in minutes.

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies to consider include traveler information, road weather management practices, quick clearance of incidents, truck-only lanes and truck-only toll facilities.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



Freight Management: Border Crossing

General Description

The intent of this objective is to reduce travel time delay at international border crossings for freight transportation in the region.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to consider include the use of commercial vehicle information systems and networks (CVISN) and traveler information to alert commercial vehicle drivers of delays at borders and possible alternatives. Additional strategies include installation, maintenance, and training in the use of electronic credentialing and dynamic pricing.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Freight Management: Intermodal Facilities

General Description

The intent is to reduce the frequency and duration of delays at intermodal facilities where goods can transfer between modes.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies include on-site weight-in-motion facilities at intermodal hubs, automated inspection technology, pre-sorting of containers by complexity of inspection, and other logistical actions.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Freight Management: Detours and Routing

General Description

The intent is to reduce the impact on freight when detours and re-routing is necessary due to incidents, emergencies, events, construction, weather, or choke points.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies include detection of incidents/congestion and dissemination of traveler alerts and detours. Strategies also include developing region-wide map of potential freight detours.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



3.3.8 Special Event Management



Special Event Management: Entry/Exit Travel Times

General Description

The objectives in this category focus on reducing the travel time for entering and exiting a special event. This section includes related objectives such as customer satisfaction of event management, event clearance, and the reliability of travel time to events.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Travel demand management strategies such as efforts in encouraging transit, car pooling, biking, walking, and other non-single occupancy vehicle modes of transportation, provide ways to improve entry and exit travel times to events. Other strategies include creating a special event signalization or special event management plan, traffic/parking management staff training, traveler information, and route management for event and non-event traffic.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Special Event Management: Mode Shift from Single Occupancy Vehicle

General Description

The intent is to minimize the use of single-occupancy vehicles by special event attendees by encouraging the use of other modes.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies include park and ride lots, shuttle service, restricting parking availability, and pricing as well as locating special events at sites that are accessible to transit, walking, and biking.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Special Event Management: Traveler Information

General Description

The objectives in this sheet focus on the use of traveler information to manage the movement of people and goods into and out of special events safely and efficiently.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies include the range of communication techniques to support traveler information for special events as well as creating a special event signalization plan or a special event management plan with components on disseminating traveler information.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Special Event Management: Parking Management

General Description

The objectives in this sheet focus on the use of parking management during special events to encourage a more efficient use of existing parking facilities and to improve the quality of service for users.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies include shared parking with nearby facilities, priced parking, transportation demand management, and park and ride. These strategies could be outlined within a special event management plan.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Special Event Management: Multi-Agency Coordination and Training

General Description

This section contains objectives that focus on efforts to improve multi-agency collaboration and training for special event management.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to consider include developing a special event management plan with components on multi-agency coordination and training efforts.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Special Event Management: Use of Technology

General Description

The objective in this section focuses on deploying and using technology to improve special event management.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies include ITS deployment to support special event management, developing a special event signalization plan or special event management plan that identifies areas of the system that could benefit from technology improvements to coordinate special events, special event management planning and coordination among regional partners, monitoring and response to special event-related incidents, post-event debriefs, and implementation improvements.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



3.3.9 Transit Operations and Management



Transit Operations and Management: Service Directness

General Description

This sheet contains objectives on improving transit service with limiting the number and time of transfers.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to minimize the number of transfers rely on the determination of transit trip characteristics, which allows transit routes to be adjusted to reduce the number of transfers.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Transit Operations and Management: Loading Standards

General Description

This sheet contains objectives on improving transit loading standards.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies include strategic infrastructure improvements to match with the busiest points along transit routes.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Transit Operations and Management: Traveler Information

General Description

This sheet contains objectives on improving passenger shelters/platforms and amenities.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies are inherent in the objectives.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Transit Operations and Management: Customer Service/Safety

General Description

The objectives in this section focus on improving transit customer service, improving personal safety (e.g. reducing crime on transit vehicles that affects customer perceptions of safety), and improving security related to reducing vandalism and graffiti in a region.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to improve customer service and safety could involve additional police/security staff around transit stations, improved staff/security training, better information about vehicle arrivals, and more frequent cleaning of transit vehicles and facilities.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Transit Operations and Management: Rapid Transit

General Description

The objectives in this section focus on improving rapid transit service in a region.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to improve rapid transit service could include making improvements to existing infrastructure (stations/platforms, exclusive bus lanes, etc.), vehicles, fare collection systems, and scheduling. Also, interim improvements to existing local and express routes that include rapid transit elements while working towards full implementation.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Transit Operations and Management: Transit Signal Priority

General Description

The objectives in this section focus on implementation of transit signal priority systems to improve transit performance and reliability in a region.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to increase transit signal priority implementation could involve identification and prioritization of routes or transit corridors that are candidates for implementing transit signal priority systems. Another strategy may include collaboration with the traffic management agency to leverage transit signal priority implementation with traffic signal system upgrades.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Transit Operations and Management: Automated Fare Collection

General Description

The objectives in this section focus on implementing and integrating automated fare collection in a region.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to increase implementation and utilization of automated fare collection could involve integrating the system across multiple modes or services, implementing a consistent system with other connecting transit services, and implementing a marketing campaign to increase awareness and utilization.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Transit Operations and Management: Park-and-Ride Support

General Description

The objectives in this section focus on improving knowledge of, and support for, park-and-ride lot connections to transit service in a region.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies to consider include those that make park-and-ride lots easier to use with technologies such as electronic payment systems and park and ride space finders. Additionally, strategies that increase transit use would also increase park-and-ride lot use.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



3.3.10 Travel Demand Management



Travel Demand Management: Auto Commuter Trip Reduction Programs

General Description

The objectives in this sheet focus on commuter trip reduction programs for employers.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies include guaranteed ride home program; commuter financial incentives (parking cash out and transit allowances); alternative scheduling (flextime and compressed work weeks); telework; bicycle parking and changing facilities at major employer locations; worksite amenities such as on-site childcare, restaurants, and shops to reduce the need to drive for errands; company travel reimbursement policies for bicycle or transit mileage for business trips; company vehicles to eliminate the need for employees to drive to work in order to have their cars for business travel; proximate commuting, which allows employees to shift to worksites that are closest to their home (for employers who have multiple work locations, such as banks and other large organizations); worksite locations that reflect location-efficient development principles; and employer strategies to encourage bicycling and walking, including safe and secure storage for bicycles and shower and locker facilities.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Travel Demand Management: Commuter Shuttle Service

General Description

The objective in this sheet focuses on promoting commuter shuttle services.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

The M&O strategy is inherent in the objective.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Travel Demand Management: Carpool/Vanpool

General Description

The objectives in this sheet focus on carpool and vanpool travel.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

The M&O strategy is inherent in the objective.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Travel Demand Management: Walking/Bicycling

General Description

The objectives in this sheet focus on walking and bicycling incentives.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

The M&O strategies are inherent in the objectives.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Travel Demand Management: Parking Management

General Description

The objectives in this sheet focus on managing parking in support of managing travel demand.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies are inherent in the objectives.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:

Travel Demand Management: Marketing

General Description

The objectives in this sheet focus on using marketing and communications to manage demand for travel.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies are inherent in objectives.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



3.3.11 Travel Weather Management



Travel Weather Management: Clearance Time (Weather-Related Debris)

General Description

The intent is to improve the time needed to clear the transportation system of weather-related debris (fallen limbs and trees, snow and ice, power lines and poles, etc.) so that safe and efficient travel can resume.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to consider in the quick clearance of roads impacted by weather would include pre-positioned debris removal vehicles, collaboration with weather forecasting services, dissemination of weather information to travelers, and preventative techniques such as spreading de-icing material prior to storm.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



Travel Weather Management: Detours for Impacted Roadways

General Description

This category addresses making improvements in helping travelers avoid sections of roadway that are dangerous and would cause them substantial delay.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Successfully developing plans for alternate routes during weather events requires significant preparations and collaboration between jurisdictions and modes.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Travel Weather Management: Disseminating Information

General Description

The objectives in this category focus on getting relevant information to travelers as soon as possible regarding the impact of weather on travel in the region.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies include variable message signs on key corridors, 511 systems, road weather information systems, agency websites, and communication links with broadcasters.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



Travel Weather Management: Road Weather Information System Coverage

General Description

The intent is to increase coverage of the road system with weather sensors and communications systems. This approach can be applied to the transit system and has the potential for application to regional bicycle facilities.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Strategies include maintaining and sharing current information on the extent of the system (roadway, transit, bicycle), the location of weather sensors, the sharing of weather data, the installation of additional sensors, and the sharing of operational actions related to a weather event.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Travel Weather Management: Signal Timing Plans

General Description

The intent is to improve the management of traffic signal systems during inclement weather conditions.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies directly flow from the objectives.

Safety-related Impacts

No known safety benefit.



3.3.12 Traveler Information



Traveler Information: Information Dissemination

General Description

This sheet contains objectives for improving the delivery of traveler information to the public, businesses, and other users of the transportation system.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to improve information dissemination include polling target audiences to determine the more effective ways to reach them with information and providing accurate, timely, and useful information.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Traveler Information: Trip Planning Tools

General Description

The objectives in this section focus on promoting system awareness among users so they have direct knowledge and awareness of current and forecasted system operating and safety conditions, route choices, and mode choices.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategy is inherent in objective.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Traveler Information: Data Collection and Sharing on Travel Conditions

General Description

This sheet contains objectives on improving the detection of travel conditions by operators and sharing traveler information between jurisdictions and modes.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

The M&O strategies to consider are inherent in the objectives.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Traveler Information: Customer Satisfaction

General Description

The objective in this sheet focuses on improving customer satisfaction with the timeliness, accuracy, and usefulness of traveler information in the region.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to improve customer satisfaction with traveler information include increasing the detection of travel conditions, improving multi-agency, multi-modal sharing of travel data, and relying on convenient, accessible means of information distribution such as cell phones and websites.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies, and their safety impacts include:



3.3.13 Work Zone Management



Work Zone Management: Travel Time Delay

General Description

The objectives in this section focus on reducing travel time delay for travelers within work zones in the region.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Regions can reduce travel time delay in work zones by shortening lane closure time (particularly during high-traffic hours) and providing travelers with ahead-of-time and realtime information to avoid the work zone.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Work Zone Management: Extent of Congestion

General Description

The objectives in this section focus on reducing the extent of congestion for travelers within work zones in the region.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Regions can reduce the extent of congestion in work zones by shortening lane closure time (particularly during high-traffic hours) and providing travelers with advance notice and realtime information to avoid the work zone.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:



Work Zone Management: Travel Time Reliability

General Description

Objectives in the area of travel time reliability in work zones aim to reduce the variability in travel time so that transportation system users experience a consistent and predictable trip time.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

Regions can improve travel time reliability in work zones by shortening lane closure time (particularly during high-traffic hours) and providing travelers with advance notice and realtime information to avoid the work zone. Proper temporary traffic control devices and practices minimize the opportunity for crashes, and therefore shortening the incident-related delay in work zones.

Safety-related Impacts

A select example of an associated M&O strategies, and its safety impacts include:



Work Zone Management: Construction Coordination

General Description

Objectives in the area of construction coordination in work zones aim to reduce the potential overlap in construction projects so that transportation system users are not burdened with significant increases in travel time due to multiple construction projects along the same or parallel routes or corridors.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies are implied in the operations objectives.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Work Zone Management: Traveler Information

General Description

Objectives in the area of traveler information for work zones aim to inform transportation system users of ongoing work zones along routes and corridors in order to reduce the impacts of travel-time delay on travelers.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies are implied in the operations objectives.

Safety-related Impacts

Direct safety impacts not identified within referenced safety documents.



Work Zone Management: Customer Satisfaction

General Description

The objectives in this section focus on improving customer satisfaction with work zone management in the region.

Operations Objectives

Performance Measures

Anticipated Data Needs

Data Resources and Partners

M&O Strategies to Consider

M&O strategies to consider when looking to improve customer satisfaction with work zones include extensive traveler information in advance of the work zone and minimizing the effect on travelers during periods when work zones are active.

Safety-related Impacts

Select examples of associated M&O strategies and their safety impacts include:




11 For more information on crash modification factors and standard error, see the FHWA crash modification factor Clearinghouse 2009, at http://www.cmfclearinghouse.org. [ Return to note 11. ]

12 For more information go to the U.S. Department of Transportation, Surface Transportation Efficiency Analysis Model (STEAM) page: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/steam. [ Return to note 12. ]

13 U.S. Department of Transportation, FHWA, Monitoring Urban Freeways in 2003: Current Conditions and Trends from Archived Operations Data, FHWAHOP-05-018 (Washington, DC: December 2004). http://mobility.tamu.edu/mmp/FHWA-HOP-05-018/data.stm. Accessed on October 20, 2009. [ Return to note 13. ]

14 U.S. Department of Transportation, FHWA, Travel Time Reliability: Making It There On Time, All The Time, December 2005. http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/tt_reliability/TTR_Report.htm. Accessed on October 20, 2009. [ Return to note 14. ]

15 U.S. Department of Transportation, FHWA, Travel Time Reliability: Making It There On Time, All The Time, December 2005. http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/tt_reliability/TTR_Report.htm. Accessed on October 20, 2009. [ Return to note 15. ]

16 U.S. Department of Transportation, FHWA, Travel Time Reliability: Making It There On Time, All The Time, December 2005. http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/tt_reliability/TTR_Report.htm. Accessed on October 20, 2009.[ Return to note 16. ]

17 U.S. Department of Transportation, FHWA, Travel Time Reliability: Making It There On Time, All The Time, December 2005.http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/tt_reliability/TTR_Report.htm. Accessed on October 20, 2009. [ Return to note 17. ]

18 Some operations objectives have been derived from the 2007 National Traffic Signal Report Card – Technical Report by the National Transportation Operations Coalition. [ Return to note 18. ]

19 See http://www.transportation.org/sites/ntimc/docs/Anatomy%20of%20a%20Traffic%20Incident.pdf for information on the stages of traffic incident management. [ Return to note 19. ]

20 Transportation Research Board, NCHRP, NCHRP Report 606: Forecasting Statewide Freight Toolkit, (Washington, DC: 2008). Available at: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_606.pdf, last accessed February 25, 2010. [ Return to note 20. ]

21 U.S. Department of Transportation, FHWA, Monitoring Urban Freeways in 2003: Current Conditions and Trends from Archived Operations Data, FHWAHOP-05-018 (Washington, DC: December 2004). http://mobility.tamu.edu/mmp/FHWA-HOP-05-018/data.stm. Accessed on October 20, 2009. [ Return to note 21. ]

22 U.S. Department of Transportation, FHWA, Travel Time Reliability: Making It There On Time, All The Time, December 2005.http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/tt_reliability/TTR_Report.htm. Accessed on October 20, 2009. [ Return to note 22. ]

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